Sam Harrelson



Sam Harrelson



We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-Mbp Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a Mycoplasma capricolum recipient cell to create new Mycoplasma mycoides cells that are controlled only by the synthetic chromosome. The only DNA in the cells is the designed synthetic DNA sequence, including “watermark” sequences and other designed gene deletions and polymorphisms, and mutations acquired during the building process. The new cells have expected phenotypic properties and are capable of continuous self-replication.

Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome


The more research I do on this, the more awe-struck I am by the accomplishment and potentials.


“To live, to err, to fall, to triumph, to recreate life out of life” indeed.


However, the beautiful calamity of evolution will seep into the created genetic lines and cause changes that the designers won’t be able to foresee or stop. It’s been that way since Eden (and even frustrated YHWH).


In the end, nature still is in charge.



Posted: 05.23.2010

Email Sam